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Debra L. Conversely, while adult cats often have different and more chronic causes of diarrhea than kittens, the condition remains a common reason for cats to be presented to veterinarians for care. This review discusses some of the more common causes as well as the best approaches for diagnosis and treatment of diarrhea in kittens and cats.
The role of diet in diagnosis and therapy of diarrhea is considered when appropriate. Diarrhea in kittens may range in severity from mild and self-limiting to a severe, hemorrhagic, life-threatening condition.
Knowledge of the most frequently encountered causes of diarrhea in kittens is essential in formulating appropriate diagnostic and férgek tünetek kezelésére utalnak plans for these young patients.
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Although adult cats can also have infectious, parasitic, mechanical a reptilia hemoparasitesei. In many adult cats, Giardia species infections are subclinical or transient, but in kittens, infection is classically associated with an acute onset of malodorous, pale, mucoid diarrhea. The diagnosis is relatively straightforward when the trophozoites or cysts are identified on fresh fecal smears or flotation.
Treatment of giardiasis in cats and kittens has not changed drastically for many years, and includes specific antiprotozoal therapy combined with environmental control. A note of caution here is advised using metronidazole at this dose for longer than days, as metronidazole toxicity is much more likely to result.
However, the lack of efficacy may giardia bleach solution been due to the combined infection, so, the true effectiveness of fenbendazole against Giardia species is not known. Finally, experimentally infected cats were effectively treated with a combination product containing febantel Drontal Plus, Bayer Animal Health.
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In that study, the kittens did not have diarrhea from Giardia infection, but Giardia antigen test results became negative after therapy, suggesting complete removal of the organism.
One note of caution is that this drug is not approved for use in cats, primarily because neurologic signs were observed during initial testing.
Because reinfection is a major cause of persistent or recurrent infection in a household, cattery, or shelter, appropriate environment control measures are essential. Such measures include environmental decontamination cleaning all floors, cages, litter pans, and surfaces that have been in contact with feces with quaternary ammonium or Clorox-containing disinfectantscoat cleaning bathing or shaving of long-haired catsand isolation of affected animals during the diarrheic phase to prevent infection through grooming and other forms of contact.
Vaccination with the commercially giardia bleach solution Giardia vaccine GiardiaVax, Fort Dodge Animal Health, Overland Park, KS does not prevent infection or shedding of cysts but may reduce the severity and the duration of shedding.
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As a result of studiesperformed by Lappin, et al, evaluating the effectiveness of this vaccine, it is not recommended for routine use in household cats. Because Giardia is zoonotic, appropriate education about handling infected cats and kittens is also important. Trichomoniasis Trichomoniasis, caused by Tritrichomonas foetus, has been recently recognized as a pathogen in kittens and giardia bleach solution cats.
This is the same protozoal organism that infects cattle, causing early embryonic death, abortion, and pyometra. However, in cats, the giardia bleach solution infects the large intestinal mucosa and causes chronic large bowel diarrhea characterized by increased mucus, tenesmus, hematochezia, and increased frequency of defecation.
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Most affected kittens are healthy, alert, and active. The only outward signs of illness are the presence of anal hyperemia or swelling, and painful defecation. Most infections are giardia bleach solution in young giardia bleach solution with chronic diarrhea average age giardia bleach solution monthsbut infection can occur at any age.
Cats that are exposed to the organism will probably giardia bleach solution infected, and infection is likely to be persistent.
In a recent study, all eight cats that were exposed to Tritrichomonas trophozoites became infected as evidenced by fecal cultures performed throughout the days of the study. However, infection with T. Diagnosis of this infection can be made by one of four approaches, listed according to relative ease of use and expense: 1 direct examination of the feces for trophozoites, 2 fecal cultures for the organism using the InpouchTF kit, Biomed Diagnostics, White City, OR3 polymerase chain reaction PCR of feces must be submitted to specific labs, Dr.
However, it is still the easiest and potentially fastest way to make a definitive diagnosis. The InPouchTF kit is more sensitive than the fecal examination but takes up to 12 days to grow the organism for diagnosis. The samples can be sent to a lab for culture, or the culture kits can be obtained and used in the practice setting. Because other trichomonad species can grow in the pouch, PCR testing of the cultured organisms may be needed.
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PCR testing is the most sensitive and specific method of diagnosis, but is also more expensive and results take longer to obtain because only a few labs can do this test. Therapy of cats with trichomoniasis is difficult because there is no readily available, approved drug.
Metronidazole and other antibiotics have been used in both experimentally and naturally infected cats but are completely ineffective in clearing the infection. Because members of the nitroimidazole family of giardia bleach solution would be expected to be effective against trichomonads, other drugs from the family have been tested.
However, this drug is not approved for use in cats and is potentially hepatotoxic and neurotoxic. Thus, it should only be used when a definitive diagnosis has been made and the owners understand the risks associated with therapy.
It should not be used empirically to treat cats with undiagnosed diarrhea because of numerous anecdotal reports of neurotoxicity, especially at higher-than-recommended doses and for longer than 14 days. All other antibiotics and parasiticidals, including tylosin, enrofloxacin, azithromycin, and fenbendazole, have not been shown to be effective against T.
Clinical remission has been shown to occur in many infected cats, usually by 2 years of age, even giardia bleach solution treatment.
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However, the giardia bleach solution feces associated with trichomoniasis reduces the likelihood that infected cats will be acceptable indoor pets. At this time there is no evidence that this organism is zoonotic, but it is certainly infectious to other cats, and appropriate infection prevention measures should be instituted.
Cryptosporidiosis Cryptosporidium parvum is a coccidian parasite that infects the microvilli of the intestinal epithelium of kittens and immunosuppressed cats. The disease caused by this infection can range from an asymptomatic carrier state; to mild, transient illness; to prolonged, life-threatening malabsorption syndromes.
A Represents a 10 fold dilurtion obtained by adding 0,5ml of the chicken carcass wash to 4,5ml of physiological saline. Overgrown with no discrete colonies C Too numerous to count but discrete colonies. Representative numbers were picked and identified as Salmonella using API strips. To each dilution 0,5ml of Salmonella typhimurium was added.